Apicultura Wiki




THE essential parts of a hive are the following: A bottom-board, the first story, or brood-chamber, containing frames for the support of the combs, and a cover. When extracted honey is to be produced, a second story like the first may be placed between it and the cover; when it is desired to have the surplus honey stored in section-boxes, one or more shallow stories containing the section-boxes are placed above the brood-chamber; these shallow stories are known as the supers.

Formerly the brood-chamber was a mere cubiform box with two horizontal cross-pieces passing through the centre at right angles to each other for the sup- port of the combs. Sometimes the bee-keeper furnished the bees with a hive made from a section of a hollow log, with a board nailed over one end for a cover, or the hollow log was placed in a horizontal position. Such a hive was known as a "bee-gum," probably because it was often made from the trunk of a gum tree; but the bee-gums with which we were familiar in our childhood were made from hollow basswood logs.

To-day in every well-regulated apiary the brood- chamber is furnished with the movable hanging frames for the support of the combs, which were invented by Langstroth a half-century ago, or by some modification of these frames. It was the invention of these frames that made the science of modern bee-keeping possible. A large part of the manipulations of the hive is dependent upon the ability to remove the combs from the hive sep- arately. Two of these frames, one empty and one containing a sheet of foundation, are shown in Plate XII. These are of one of the newer styles, known as the Hoffman self-spacing frames. In these frames the upper part of the end-bars are wide, so that, when the frames are in contact, there is room for a bee- way between the combs; the lower part of the end-bars are narrower, so that the bees can pass freely around the ends of the frames.

In the old days, and at present in some apiaries where home-made frames are used, the spacing between the frames has to be done by eye or rather by finger; the thickness of the tip of the finger between two frames being necessary to afford a bee-way. But with the new frames in the market to-day this is done away with, as they are arranged to space them- selves, thus relieving the novice of much anxiety and some embarrassment in deciding whether his finger is as thick as that of the average apiarist. Also in these newer frames a little staple at each end of the top sets each frame exactly right in relation to the ends of the hive.

Before the frame is placed in the brood-chamber it is to be supplied with a sheet of comb-foundation; this insures the building of the comb in the desired position, so the frames can be removed from the hive. Bees do not naturally make their combs straight, but curve them so that they are less likely to be broken. It is necessary, therefore, in order to get straight combs to confine the operations of the bees within set bounds; this is done by putting a sheet of foundation in each frame.

One of the attractions of bee-keeping is that much of the material we work with is pleasing, and some artistically beautiful. A sheet of foundation-comb made of the most delicate w r ax, frescoed on either side with rhomb insets in hexagonal pattern, is a joy to the artistic eye. It is absolutely necessary that the foundation should be put into the frame in such a manner that it will not sag or bulge when it is built out into the comb and filled with the heavy honey or brood. To keep these large sheets from bulging and breaking they are held in place by fine wire which is strung back and forth across the frame, passing through holes made with a small awl in the end-bars. These holes should be about two inches apart, the upper one one inch from the top bar, and the lower one something less than an inch from the bottom bar, making four wires in the Langstroth frame. After these holes are made, put a small tack at one end near the lower hole, twist the wire around it, then thread the wire back and forth, making four wires parallel with the top and bottom bars, and fasten the wire with a tack; care should be taken not to draw the wire too tightly; simply draw up the slack.

The sheets of foundation as sold by the dealers are a little smaller than the space in the frame, so that when they are fastened to the top bar a bee-space is left between the sheet and the bottom and end bars. See Plate XII.

The sheet of foundation is fastened to the top bar of an ordinary frame by means of a Van Deusen wax-tube fastener, which is simply a hollow tube that may be dipped in and filled with the hot wax which issues through a small hole at the sharp, bent end of the tube; as the point is drawn along where the foundation and frame meet it leaves a stream of hot wax that seals the two together. However, the most satisfactory way is to get brood-frames, like the Hoffman, which have two grooves in the top bar. Set the foundation in the groove at the centre, and introduce a strip of wood which is wedge-shaped in cross-section, thin edge first, into the adjoining groove, driving it or pressing it in hard so that it pushes the thin partition over, and wedges the foundation firmly in place. These strips for wedging come with the frames.

After the foundation is fastened to the top bar the frame and foundation are laid, wire side up, on a board just the size of the piece of foundation so that it will slip inside the frame. This board is kept wet to prevent the wax from sticking to it. Then we use the spur wire-embedder, which is like the tracing- wheel used by dressmakers, except that the teeth

are spread apart alternately so that they pass astride the wire and press it down into the foundation ; to do this successfully, the foundation should be warm; working near a lamp or in a warm room will suffice. Embedding the wires by heating them with elec- tricity instead of using the spur-embedder is a com- mon practice in large apiaries where electricity is available, or where it pays to buy a battery with proper attachments. This outfit with the dry cells costs about five dollars, and is a paying investment when the apiary is large. (Plate III.)


The super is that part of the hive that is placed above the brood-chamber and is designed to receive the surplus honey, either comb or extracted.

When extracted honey is produced the super may resemble the brood-chamber described above, or it may not be so high, fitted to receive a frame little more than half as deep as the standard Langstroth frame used in the brood-chamber.

When comb-honey is produced, the super is only about half as high as the brood-chamber. For this reason a hive consisting of a brood-chamber and one super for comb-honey is termed a one-and-a-half- story hive. (Plate XV.)

A complete super fitted for comb-honey consists of the following parts: (1) The outer wall, which is of the same length and width as the brood- chamber and of the right height to hold the style of section-boxes used; on the lower side of each end a tin strip is fastened to support the fixtures that it is to contain; (2) the section-boxes; these are the wooden frames containing the comb-honey when it is placed on the market; each holds about one pound of honey; four of these are shown in the Plate XIV; (3) the section-holder; this is a rack fitted to hold and support one row of section-boxes, as shown in Plate XIV; when in place in the super, it rests on the scrips of tin mentioned above; (4) the fence; this is a device placed between the rows of section-boxes to keep the bees from building the comb beyond the edges of the section-boxes; the style used with the plain or no-beeway section is shown in Plate III; the vertical cleats on this fence provide for a bee- space between it and the section-boxes, so that the bees can build out the comb even with the edge of the section-box; (5) the super springs; these are three flat springs, fastened to the inner face of one side-wall in such a way that they press the fences and the section-boxes closely together. (Plate XII.)

There are several types of supers in use that differ, in certain details, from the one described above. In some, the rows of section-boxes and fences are pressed together by thumb-screws which pass through one side-wall of the super. Many bee- keepers still use section-boxes with beeways, that is, boxes having the top and bottom narrower than the two sides. When such boxes are used, the fences lack the vertical slats, or posts; in fact, a simple strip of tin may serve as a fence.

Most of the section-boxes in use now are made of a single piece, which is dovetailed at the ends and has three transverse V-shaped grooves cut in one side so that it can be bent into shape, as shown in Plate II. These flat basswood sections afford very pretty material with which to work. The novice, in putting them together, almost always bends them with grooves outside at the corners, instead of inside, and then wonders why they are askew, and break. We wet the sections where they are grooved before we begin working with them. This may be done by brushing each individual flat with warm water, which is a very tedious process ; but it is better to take a handful of them as they lie, the grooves all in a line, set them on edge and pour a little water from a pitcher on the grooves. This wets many at a time with little trouble. To set up a section, it should be taken in the hands, grooves up, bend the ends upward evenly, fastening the dovetailed edges together gently. Haste and jerkiness are as disas- trous in handling sections as in handling bees.

The foundation for the comb-sections is much lighter in weight than that intended for the brood- frames. Some apiarists fill the entire section with this foundation, except for the bee-spaces at the bot- tom and at the sides. But we never do this, unless we are obliged to do it to coax the bees to use the supers; for it is not so satisfactory as to use a narrow strip for a guide at the top of the section, as a starter to show the bees where to build the comb. We cut these strips about an inch deep and almost as wide as the section, and, with the Daisy fastener, fix each strip at just the middle line of the upper bar of the section. The objection to filling a section with a com- plete sheet is, first, the expense of the foundation; and, secondly, that it is likely to give a tough central por- tion or " fish-bone " to the comb-honey. (Plate XIV. )


If they are not ordered set up ready for use, the supers come in flat pieces with dovetailed ends, and putting them together is a pleasing occupation, after one has learned how. The best way to learn how is to carefully observe a super already properly set up; for, though the directions for putting these together are as plain as may be, yet a person may err therein and yet not be a fool. Unless one has learned, or can learn, to drive a nail, one had best not undertake bee-keeping, for the bee-keeper must become a carpenter to be successful; it adds much to the interest of the occupation to make all sorts of things for one's own bees. The principle on which the super is built is that it may hold the sections tightly in place, and not allow them to drop through. Therefore, at the bottom of the super, along each narrower end, is a tin strip to support the ends of the section-holders; to keep the ends of the section- holders even a wedge-shaped strip of wood is nailed across the end of the super, thick edge down and flush with the bottom edge, resting against the tin strips. . We use the Hetherington super-springs, one at each end and one at the middle of one side of the super; the trick of putting these in is to set

(a) Two self-spacing frames; one of them fitted with a sheet of foundation

7>) An empty super, showing the springs and the wedge-shaped piece at the end.

(c) The Doolittle division-board feeder PLATE XII

them opposite the posts of the fence, one at either endpost, and one at the middle post, else the spring will be of no use. Driving in the sharp end of this spring successfully requires a little practice. The super is now ready to be filled. (Plate XII.)

First place a fence in the super on the side opposite the spring; then a section-holder filled with four starters, always remembering that these foundation- starters should be at the top of the section. Then place another fence and another section-holder. The eight-frame super will hold six of these rows, with fences between and one on each side. Putting in the last fence is the final test of whether the springs are in the right place, for, if they are right and press against the posts of the fence, it will be very hard to push in this last fence; when it is in, the sections are all held snugly in place. (Plates III, XV.)

Where the super is placed on the hive, it should closely fit the top of the brood-chamber, with no cracks between. If the hive has a flat cover, which leaves only a bee-space above the sections, the cover may be placed immediately above the super, with nothing between. With covers like the telescope cover, a super-cover is needed. This may be a quilt or a piece of enamelled cloth; but we prefer a super-cover made of a thin board, bound on the ends to prevent warping, which is now on the market.


It is generally believed, and for good reasons, apparently, that bees like some people and despise others, who are just as good, so far as we can detect. This apparent capriciousness has been explained in many ways. Some hold that the bees have a fine sense of smell, and thus distinguish us by odours rather than by sight; and in this case their ire is aroused because they do not like the perfume exhaled by the obnoxious person. Others claim that it depends upon the movements; if one moves nervously and quickly, he is much more subject to attacks. It is certainly true that if a bee, which is buzzing threateningly, is struck at, she becomes more enraged and is more certain to sting, but this is because she recognises an aggressive foe because of the act. However, the senior partner in our apiary is an exceedingly active and nervous man, and I have seen him move with all haste and energy while working with bees, and though he seldom uses bee-veil or gloves, he is rarely stung. Our bees seem to be acquainted with him, and accept his rapid movements as one of the common- places of bee existence. It is well for anyone who wishes to work with bees to spend some time in the bee-yard just watching the little citizens coming and going, and listening to the peculiarly soothing hum which always fills the air around the hives. It is sympathy with the bees more than actions that finally results in handling them without harm.


First of all, fire up the smoker. The way to do this properly is to place some easily ignited material in the bottom of the fire-chamber, touch a match to it, and crowd in above it material which will make plenty of smoke, and will not burn too rapidly; give a puff or two with the bellows to be sure that the fire is started. We have used excelsior in our smoker because it was near at hand, but it is not a perfect or lasting fuel. Fine chips, especially planer shavings, old rags, greasy cotton waste, and even pine needles are used. Anything is desirable that will make a smudge and will not burn out too quickly; for when we are working with the bees we have little time or inclination to stop and "putter" with the smoker; and we cannot afford to have the smoke give out at the critical moment when we most need its protecting incense. A minimum amount of fire with the maximum amount of smoke is the desirable quality in the smoker. If the fire gets too hot the blasts will burn the bees, which is an outrage, and which is never permitted by a civilised individ- ual. The Corneil smoker has a hook attached to the bellows, so it may be hung on the edge of the open hive to be at hand in time of need. If it be- comes too hot, we lay it flat on the ground so as to stop the draft. Each time after the smoker is used it should be emptied, otherwise it is likely to start a conflagration. We have an ash pail near the apiary in which we always empty the smoker on our way back to the bee-room. Mr. Root speaks of never using the smoker until it is needed; when his bees trouble him, he gently pats them on the back with a little grass to get them out of his way as he lifts up the frames. And we never can admire Mr. Root enough for dealing thus gently with his bee- people. But we would not advise the novice to try this, as a person has to be on very intimate terms with bees to be able to pat them on the back with grass and impunity. However, this is an ideal to work toward. The nervous beginner almost in- variably uses too much smoke, and this makes his little dependents unhappy. The breathing of smoke is hardly a pleasant experience for us, and it seems to be still more distressing to the bees. We remember once how, in the enthusiasm of our novi- tiate, we inadvertantly smoked the bee-man in- stead of the bees in our misguided efforts to help, and the result was a blueness of the atmos- phere which rendered more smoke superfluous. Every beginner ought to get at least one head- ache from the fumes of the smoker to teach him charity and care.

There are several reasons why the hive must be opened, aside from the fun one derives from the experience. First, the brood needs to be examined occasionally to see that it is all right, and in the fall the brood-comb must be examined to see that there is enough honey stored within it to winter the bees. Second, during the swarming season to find and remove the queen-cells. Third, to hunt for the queen to be sure she is present and active, or per- chance to find her and clip her wings. Fourth, to take off supers filled with honey. A warm day should be selected for opening the hive for whatever reason, and the middle of the day is the best time for the work.

Send two or three puffs of smoke in at the entrance to drive back the frightened sentinels who keep care- ful watch of the portals of the hive. Then lift one edge of the cover of the hive a little and send two or three puffs in the crack; then lift off the cover and set it down beside you; then lift the quilt or super- cover at one edge, and give two or three puffs of smoke beneath it to drive the bees down among the frames, always remembering that under ordinary circumstances a very little smoke is necessary to frighten and subdue the bees. In fact the same rule applies to smoking bees as to smoking tobacco; if one is moderate in its use, the least harm will result.


Stand at one side of the hive, and not in front of it. Hang the smoker on the side of the hive, so as to have it within reach. Mr. Root advises sitting on the cover of the hive set on edge while you examine the brood-frame. This will do for a well-poised person, but we prefer a little stool, which we can carry easily from hive to hive, as we wish something that we can sit on calmly as the situation requires. Commence at one side and loosen the outside section with a knife, or what is better, an old screw-driver. Take the frame by the projecting ends, and lift it up so that you may examine it on one side, then twirl it half-way over to examine it on the other. It requires some experience to placidly lift out a frame, covered with what at first sight looks like a dark, boiling, viscous fluid, fit only for a witch's cauldron, but which soon to the startled eye resolves itself into bee particles. If the brood must be examined or queen cells found, then it becomes necessary to get rid of this seething, enveloping bee-mass, which is done in a manner that seems like nothing less than tempting Providence. The brood-frame is seized firmly in the operator's hands, and held about waist high in front of the hive, then let to drop, hands and all, swiftly to within about six inches of the doorstep of the hive, then suddenly jerked back again; the bees being heavy and receiving the downward impetus, keep right on as a man keeps on when his bicycle stops suddenly in a rut with this difference that the bees land safely at the entrance of the hive, into which they scamper as soon as their dazed wits will allow. One would naturally think that the bees would attack the active agent of this indignity, but while bees are ever ready to fight recognised enemies, they have evolved no plan of action which is equal to a cataclysm, except to get under cover as soon as possible. Thus being shaken from their founda- tions is to them what an earthquake is to us, and the attitude of Riley's boy is theirs.

"Where's a boy a-goin' an' what's he goin' to do, An' how's he goin' to do it, when the world bu'sts through ?"

Thus it is that among the first accomplishments of the apiarist is the one that enables him skilfully and with dispatch, and without harming the indi- viduals to shake the surprised little mob off the frame or out of the boxes, to a place where its members may recover shelter and equanimity as expe- ditiously as possible.

After the .comb is freed from the bees, it requires some experience with honey-comb topography to see at a glance just the condition of the brood. There may be cells that look empty until a ray of light reveals at the bottom a glistening egg; and there may be cells with a little milky substance at the bottom in which the young larva is floating; or in some cells the bee grubs may be distinctly seen if they, are four or five days old. If the cells are capped, it may puzzle the novice to know what lies behind that closed waxen door. If the cells con- tain honey, the substance of which the cap is made is whiter than that which covers the brood. In case of worker-brood the cap is depressed slightly below the plane of the comb, which is not the case if the cells contain honey. The large size of the drone cells distinguishes them readily from the cells of the workers. Often honey is stored in drone cells, for the bees seem to like to make these larger cells, and for good reason, since they give greater storage capacity for the amount of wax used. However, the drone cells which contain brood are covered with dark, dirty, yellow caps which are quite convex, looking like kopjes on the comb plain. At the height of the honey season there should be plenty of brood, and later the cells in the brood-frames should be filled with honey. The cells containing bee-bread are not capped, as this staff of bee life is packed so hard that it does not need to be covered. All honey remains uncapped until it is properly evaporated and ripened. (Plate VIII.)

After one frame has been thus examined, it should be leaned up against the side of the hive so as to give space to lift out the next frame without crushing the bees.


Fortunately for us, this is quite prominent, being a veritable oriel in shape. However, there may be other excrescences of the comb which somewhat resemble a queen cell ; sometimes the queen cell may be more or less embedded and so escape observation. The bee-keeper who is cocksure that he can find all the queen cells in his hives has to be most experienced, and even then cocksureness may come to grief. But this unglazed oriel window in which the queen develops is usually quite noticeable, and is ordi- narily decorated with a small, hexagonal pattern in relief. We have often wondered if this was done for the sake of decoration, or because the bees are so in the habit of fashioning wax into hexagonal patterns that they do it involuntarily. For the person who rashly asserts that honey- comb is the result of fortuitous force and pres- sure, this queen cell with its hexagonal frescoes is a poser. (Plate V.)

To cut out the queen cell a sharp, pointed knife is necessary, in order to injure the comb beneath the cell as little as possible.


If we simply need assurance that the queen is present and active, the discovery of eggs or young larvae in the cells is sufficient evidence of her presence, and saves the tiresome search for her majesty. But if we wish to find her, she is usually present on the middle frame of the hive. It is not safe to pull out this middle frame from the narrow place which it occupies for fear of hurting the queen and crushing the other bees ; so it is best always to take out an end frame, first looking at it carefully to make sure she is not upon it; then shake off the bees and set it beside the hive, and move the other frames along in the space thus made until we are able to remove the middle frame with ease. It requires some ex- perience to ferret out the queen from the bee-mob which seethes over the comb. The burly, big, blunt- ended drones are much more readily detected. However, after a little training in the devious ways of royalty one becomes expert in seeing that long, graceful, pointed body extending far back of the wings which characterises the queen. If the bees are not too much disturbed, she is likely to be sur- rounded by a rosette of workers, all with their faces toward her, for even in the court of the hive etiquette does not permit that the ladies-in-waiting turn their backs to the queen. If for any reason the queen is to be lifted out, she should be seized by the wings or thorax or imprisoned in a queen trap, but never under any circumstances should she be seized by the abdomen. (Plate XVI, Queen trap.)


This does not mean cutting off all four of the wings, but that the wings on one side should be clipped, leaving stubs not more than an eighth of an inch long. Various devices have been invented to aid clumsy hands in cutting off the royal petticoats. One, the Monette queen-clipping device, is a little cone-shaped cage made of wire laid in spirals. She goes into this cage head first and the door is shut behind her. Then the scissors are slipped between the spirals at the proper point and the deed is done. Another simple device is a bit of section-board whittled in the shape of a tiny bootjack with a rubber band stretched rather tightly across the prongs. The forks are placed across the queen so that the rubber presses against the thorax, thus pinning her fast to the comb while she is barbered. The only skill needed in this device is in fixing the tension of the rubber band so that it will be sufficient to hold her majesty fast, and yet not stiff enough to hurt her. Our invariable plan is as follows: After the queen is discovered, we hold the brood frame in one hand, pick up her royal highness in the other most gently, then still more gently set the frame down, leaning it against the hive; then, holding her royal person firmly but carefully in our own unworthy thumb and fingers, clip her wings with presuming scissors; then, putting the scissors down as we pick up the frame, and put her back as nearly as possible on the spot where we found her. We always use the sharp- pointed embroidery scissors for this delicate opera- tion.


Lift the hive cover and quilt with a slight intro- duction of smoke, then lift off completely. Smoke from above for a moment, being very careful not to burn the bees, always remembering that smoke is meant to scare and not to punish. Then loosen the super with a screw-driver if the bees have fastened it down with bee glue, lift it and place it on a bottom- board near at hand. Put on an unfilled super if it is needed and cover the hive. Lift the honey- sections out of the super, brushing off the adhering bees with a bee-brush, so that they will fall on the doorstep of the hive, and place each section as it is cleaned in a basket or box in which it is to be carried to the store-room. This is our usual way of pro- cedure when our apiary is small, and we do this work during spare moments which are not predict- able the night before. However, there is one best way to do this work, and that is to put on a Porter bee-escape the night before the super is to be re- moved. Wise from experience, we advise beginners to study this device and become imbued with a knowl- edge of its workings to the extent of being able to tell which is the upper and which the under side, lest disastrous results ensue and all of the bees escape

into the super instead of out of it. If the bee-escape is placed on the night before, there will be no bees in the super when it is removed next day. To introduce a bee-escape one does not need to lift off the super; simply lift it up at one side, send a little smoke into the crack, push in the bee-escape, and then set it straight upon the hive and the super straight upon it. (Plates III, XVIII.)

The novice might conclude that a good plan would be simply to set off the super near the hive, and let the bees find their own way back to their brood and kindred. But bee-nature has to be reckoned with in this instance, and the bees, conscious that the honey is their own, are likely to uncap the cells and carry the honey into the hive; or worse still, the bees from othe- hives will be attracted to these open stores and will begin to rob. And in the bee courts of equity, when bees begin to rob, then the "devil is to pay."

, There have been various bee-tents devised under which the supers are placed after being removed from the hive. These tents are arranged with a little hole at the top by which the bees may escape, but may not return. Doctor Miller invented a sim- ple plan of piling several supers filled with honey on top of each other, leaving no crevices between them; over these was spread a cloth with a hole in the middle, over which was placed a wire cone with a hole in the top large enough to let a bee pass out. Thus the bees from all of the sections escaped, one by one, and robbing was avoided. However, the bee-escapes introduced between the super and the laives are used to-day by most enterprising bee-men.


Anyone who has worked long with bees, cannot fail to become filled with curiosity concerning the way their work is carried on in the mysterious dark- ness of the hive; to such a person, the observation- hive is a source of perennial delight, as well as of interesting and useful knowledge.

Observation-hives have been used by bee-keepers from the time of Huber to the present, and naturally many forms of them have been devised. The type in most common use now is a small hive, containing one, two or three frames, and furnished with glass sides, through which the bees can be observed. The glass sides are covered with a door or curtain, except when observations are being made; for, if not, the bees will cover the glass with a coat of propolis, ren- dering it opaque.

It is somewhat difficult to keep a colony in good condition upon a single frame; and if two or more frames are used side by side the observer is unable to see what goes on between the frames. Professor Kellogg, of Stanford University, has devised a per- fectly satisfactory two-frame observation-hive for his laboratory. It consists of a glass-sided box, large enough to hold two Langstroth frames, one above the other; as both sides of the comb are exposed, any individual bee may be kept constantly in sight while she is working. The passage which leads from the hive to the opening in the window has a glass top, so the actions of the bees as they enter the hive may be watched. A hood of thick black cloth is pulled down over the hive when the observations are finished. Similar observation hives may be purchased of dealers in apiarists' supplies. Such an observation-hive would be of great value to the enterprising bee-keeper, as it would be the means of helping him to understand conditions which were puzzling, and thus aid him in dealing with crises that are sure to occur. The advantage of this hive over any other is that frames from any hive may be kept under closest observation. But if the hive were a means of interest merely, it would still be worth while, for the bee-keeper cannot know too much about the ways of bees, supposing all he knows is true.


Have the smoker ready to give forth a good volume of smoke.

Use the smoker to scare the bees rather than to punish them.

Do not stand in front of the hive lest the bees passing out and in take umbrage.

Be careful not to drop any implements with which you are working; take hold of all things firmly.

Move steadily, and not nervously.

Do not run if frightened, for the bees understand what running away means as well as you do.

If the bees attack you, move slowly away, smoking them off as you go.

If a bee annoys you by her threatening attitude for some time, kill her ruthlessly.

If stung by a bee, rub off the sting, instead of pulling it out with the nails of the thumb and forefinger and thus forcing more venom into the wound.

Ammonia applied to the wound made by a bee-sting will usually afford immediate relief.